Can you correctly label various parts of a DNA molecule depends on how much knowledge you have about the DNA molecule. The structure of a human’s body is indeed complex and also consists of a lot of parts. There are several people who need a long time to learn the parts inside a human’s body. For you who want to learn about it, you can start by learning the structure of DNA which is one of the carrier compounds of the characteristics of a human’s body.
The Structure of DNA Molecule
The DNA molecule itself has some parts. Every part has a different function or role. Below are several parts of DNA molecule including:
DNA consists of 2 sheets which are usually called double helix so that there are a lot of people who do not understand yet about this structure. In this structure, there are color differences between one sheet with another one.
One of the things that make us easily recognize DNA is because it has a spiral shape similar to a zipper. So that we can say that DNA is like a spinning zipper.
Every chain sticks to a different edge and the chain is very strong. A nucleotide is an important thing in this process.
Every chain or every nucleotide consists of the phosphate groups or also usually called as a nitrogen base. This nitrogen base is adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
Every phosphate group sticks in a carbon group 5’. This will show a direction to the DNA that will be learned.
Every nucleotide will surely be connected to the phosphate groups because it sticks to the carbon group 5’.
Every chain in the DNA molecule will be paired up with each other and it is permanent.
That information are probably able to give you the answer of can you correctly label various parts of a DNA molecule.
The Functions of DNA
Do you know the functions of DNA? DNA has a lot of functions including in the immune system of a human’s body. Below are the functions of DNA.
DNA is one of the determinants of human’s characteristic and nature which can be translated through the process of translation and also transcription.
DNA is a characteristic carrier that depends on the gene owned by a person.
The genes in DNA will make every person has a different line of descent depends on the descent they own.
A series of DNA will be really helpful for a DNA replication.
The order of nucleotide will help in shifting RNA that has the same functions as DNA.
DNA is very helpful when an accident happens so that the family members are able to recognize their relatives.
6 Composite Components of DNA Sequence
There are 6 components that make up the DNA sequence arranged in a double helix structure. Below are 6 composite components of DNA sequence.
2-deoxyribose or deoxy sugar is a monosaccharide with a molecular formula of H-(C=O)-(CH2)-(CHOH)3-H. This deoxy sugar has 5 carbons and is a ribose sugar that loses one oxygen atom. Deoxyribose binds to the phosphate groups and nitrogen bases which are adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine.
Phosphate is a non-organic element with a molecular formula of PO43−. This element has a role as a buffering agent.
Cytosine is one of 4 nitrogen bases. In the genes, cytosine is symbolized with the letter C. In DNA, cytosine binds to guanine and forms 3 hydrogen bonds.
Thymine is also one of 4 nitrogen bases. It is also called 5-methyluracil. In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil. In DNA, thymine binds to adenine to form 2 hydrogen bonds. In genes, thymine is represented by the letter T.
Aside from being one of the composite components of DNA sequence, adenine is also a part of Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP which is rich in energy. In genes, adenine is symbolized with the letter A. Adenine is one of the 4 nitrogen bases too.
As one of the nitrogen bases, guanine binds to cytosine in DNA in order to form 3 hydrogen bonds. In genes, guanine is represented by the letter G.
Facts that Can Be Revealed from DNA
Through DNA or DNA test, several facts are able to be revealed, including these facts:
Predict the Future
By using the sample of blood from the mother or saliva from the father, the scientist is able to determine whether their kid who is still in the womb will have the chromosomal abnormalities which can cause the genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome or not.
Lately, the researchers begin to expand the function of this prenatal genetic test in order to identify potential developmental delays and intellectual disabilities in children such as autism. Even, this genetic test is also able to reveal the risk factor of particular diseases that you might inherit from your parents. For example, the risk of getting breast cancer or intestinal cancer.
Although the determination of risk factors through this DNA test does not guarantee you from getting the disease, at least you know if you have the chance to get a particular illness and can take a preventive action
According to a study, a person’s ability to lose some weights or gain some weights is formed or determined by the genes you have. The researchers themselves successfully identify several genes variations that probably influence someone’s potential to be obese, even to their kids.
The genetic components that make people be vulnerable to obesity are found already. From this finding, the researchers try to find out how to combine the genetic factors, diet, and exercise in order to help people who want to lose some of their bodies weights and maintain it.
Those are the information you may want to know about DNA, DNA molecule, and also can you correctly label various parts of a DNA molecule.