Things to Know about the Bacterial DNA and How It is Carried
In most bacteria the DNA is carried, how does it work? The genetic study defines and analyses the heredity along with the changes from the various physiological function to form a certain organism’s characters. The hereditary unit is often related to the DNA although it is not exactly like that. There is indeed a segment in the DNA in which the nucleotide carries the information of particular biochemical and physiological characters.
The traditional approach in the genetic system has identified the genes as the basic contribution to the phenotype character from the entire structural and physiology in a certain cell or organism. The easiest example is the regarding the human’s eyes color, the type of hair, and many more.
The same things also happen in the microbes. The traditional knowledge of microbes’ genetics is based on the observation conducted by the scientist starting from decades ago. The variation of phenotype has been observed based in the ability of the genes to grow under selected conditions. As an example, there is a kind of bacteria that contains a gen which is resistant toward the ampicillin. It can be differed from any other bacteria using the antibiotic as the selection ingredient.
The Bacterial Genome
The hereditary unit in the bacteria is known as the bacterial genome or the gene of bacteria. A cell with DNA is a genetic material that has such a hereditary character in the entire life system. Genome is a complete set of the genetic material (DNA) owned by a certain organism that has been organized into the chromosome.
In most bacteria the DNA is carried, the plasmid is spreading widely in the bacterial population. The plasmid consists of around 100 kpb with the weight of 1-3% from the chromosome and it is freely found in the cytoplasm. Sometimes, it can just be unified with the bacterial chromosome. The number can just be simply improved into 30 or more due to the mutation.
Although the bacteria itself is the haploid, the gen transmission from one generation to the others are done in linier. Consequently, in each cycle of the cell division, each of the new cells obtains a set of gen that is really similar to the stem cell.
The Two Biology Phenomena in the Hereditary Concept
There are mainly two phenomena of biology in the hereditary concept including in most bacteria the DNA is carried. First, there is the hereditary that is stable in which the next generation is formed from the division process in which the new cells have the same characteristics to the stem cells.
Second, the genetic variation happens to cause the differences of characteristics of the new cell generations from the stem cells. It is caused by a certain event including the mutation.
The lacking of the unsures causes the complex structures. The structures are involved in the euchariota chromosome division into the different nucleic. The replication of bacterial DNA is starting from one point and it moves to all the directions. In the process, two old DNA ribbons are separated and used as the models to synthesize the new ribbons. This process is known also as the semi-conservative replication.
The structures where the two ribbons are separated and the new synthesis happens are known as the replication. The replication of bacterial chromosome is very controllable. Meanwhile, the chromosome of each cell that is growth is on the range of 1 to 4.
In most bacteria the DNA is carried, some bacterial plasmid can have up to 30 imitations in one bacterial cell. Then, the mutation also causes the free control from the plasmid replication. It can even produce the more imitations.
The steps of the DNA replications are as follow. First, the DNA replication starts from certain points and those points are known as the origins of replications. Second, the prokaryotic chromosome only has one origin; meanwhile, the eukaryotic chromosome has some origins at once. Third, each chain of the new DNA is synthesized through two main mechanisms.
Despite the replication, the DNA also has passed through some other processes known as the transcription and translation. Transcription is basically the coding it also has some steps known as the binding, synthesizing, twisting, and releasing that involve not only DNA but also RNA
On the other hand, translation is the translating process of the nucleotide orders or condones that have been in the mRNA molecules into the chains of amino acids that form a certain polypeptides and proteins. This process happens in the ribosome.
Similar to the other two processes, translation also passes through some mechanisms known as the initiation, elongation, and the termination. The process of initiation starts from the attachment of the ribosome’s small subunit to the mRNA into a certain place. Then, the ribosome has been shifted to meet the AUG condone.
Next, the elongation is the process when the tRNA along with the anti-condone and the amino acid is inserted to the place A. As a result, those two places of ribosome are filled and there is a chain of the peptide and the two amino acids.
Lastly, the termination process is the stopping when the place A meets the last condones. Those condones don’t have any tRNA that brings the right anti-condone. The release factor is inserted into those places and releases the polypeptide chains formed from the last tRNA. The ribosome has also changed into the other two subunits that are small and big.
The Mutation in the Bacterial DNA
If the replication, transcription, and translation are the normal process, the mutation is not necessary like that. It even refers to the change of chemical compound in the DNA. In most bacteria the DNA is carried, the mutant is basically an individual in whom the changes have happened in one of the DNA or more. This chance is inherited and irreversible, for the exception is if there is a contradicting mutation that brings back the individual into the normal condition.
Some factors that cause the mutation are the changes during the transcription process and the changes of the orders of the amino acids. In most bacteria the DNA is carried, those are basically the genetic products.