What Are the Limitations of DNA Microarray Technology?
One of the most popular blood grouping test options available in the market is DNA microarray technology. DNA tests are usually performed on cells taken from many tissues. These tissues can be bone, saliva, blood, or urine samples. The DNA tests identify the genetic structure of the cells and thereby determine the relationships among them. For instance, if a person has many relatives with the same surname, the DNA test will tell whether he carries disease-causing viruses.
Unlike other DNA tests, the DNA microarray can also be used for other purposes. A DNA test can be used for genetic analysis, study the effects of medications on the genes, or determine whether particular diseases have a genetic component. DNA Microarray technology has enabled scientists to create personalized genetic maps, which allow them to look at the effect of different treatments on individual genes. This feature makes it ideal for analyzing inherited diseases.
Since the mRNA array technology has enabled scientists to create personalized maps of cellular genetics, they are now being used in crime laboratories to determine the location and identity of criminal suspects. Previously, this type of testing was complex. Most men’s technologies rely on traditional PCR amplifiers to generate the reads. However, researchers have recently succeeded in designing powerful new genetic and amplifiers that can directly cause the reads from DNA samples.
To perform its tests accurately, the mRNA microarray needs to adhere to stringent quality control processes. It should be made using advanced and well-characterized laboratory equipment. There should be enough buffer between the experimental samples and the bead traps to trap any loose DNA molecules. The final product of the microarray experiments should meet the expectations of the regulatory agencies.
Although different types of experiments may produce very other data concerning the limitations of DNA microarray experiments, all agree that the most significant rule is human error. The wrong shape or size of the DNA probe can confuse the calculations for the expression levels. Moreover, the wrong sequence of DNA measurements can result in a lower number of genes than those initially collected. If DNA analysis is performed by someone without sufficient knowledge about gene expression levels, the results will most likely undervalue the actual contribution of the genes to that body.
The most significant limitation of DNA microarray experiments concerns the number of genes detected from one or two samples. Because the number of expression levels is highly dependent on the DNA samples that are chosen, it is impossible to make an accurate calculation of the number of genes. There is no way to determine precisely which sets of DNA templates are used to initiate the different reactions without performing additional experiments. The uncertainty inherent in determining the number of genes also leads to the possibility that we may never know the proper limits of DNA expression levels.
Another limitation of DNA microarray technology is the inability to measure gene expression levels in humans or animals. Animals cannot be used for experiments because their immune systems will prevent foreign DNA from entering their bodies. Also, it would be impossible to tell which animal tissues are positive and which ones are negative. Only in humans can a DNA probe determine whether or not a particular set of genes is functional.
There are still many unanswered questions regarding what are the limitations of DNA microarray experiments. However, one thing that has been proven time and again is that the presence of the human genome within living cells is an incredible scientific discovery. Scientists have worked very hard to capture the functionality of all genes. In addition, they have developed a technique known as sequencing evolution that determines the relationship between DNA and its environment. This technique has led scientists to believe that the limitations of DNA stem from its inability to function alone without outside stimulus. These results have taught us that the rules we think of when we think of the limitations of DNA are the result of living organisms’ ability to co-operate.