Have you ever wondered what are the monomer units of DNA? DNA is the tiniest component of our body, yet it determines many factors for our lives. Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or known as DNA is a polymer. Within every cell of our DNA, it gives out the information of our body function as well as its growth. For every DNA structure, it has four amino acids: adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine. Each monomer unit they have distinctive attributes, in which it forms a long chain that connects it with other nucleotide or monomer.
In order to know better about what are the monomer units of DNA, you have two know there are two types of monomer: purine and pyrimidine.
Purine is a compound of heterocyclic organic which has a pyrimidine ring. Both this pyrimidine ring and imidazole ring are fused together, making purine a step wider than molecule. This is including tautomers and substituted purines. Every purine consists of four nitrogen atoms and two carbon-nitrogen rings. Purines are very important in producing RNA and DNA, in which it controls the regulation of the enzymes as well as cell signaling.You can obtain purines in any kind of meat products, especially those that have high concentration, such as beef, pork and poultry. Other than that, you can also consume anchovies as well as mackerels, scallops and sardines to improve the work of purines inside your kidney, liver or other internal organs.
Quite similar to Purine, Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. However, its core looks more alike with pyridine and benzene, in which the atoms have two nitrogen cells, at the first and third position amongst its six member rings. Pyrimidine also determines the production of both RNA and DNA. However, different to Purines which have adenine and guanine as its bases, the bases of Pyrimidine are cytosine, thymine and uracil. For every pyrimidine, it has one carbon-nitrogen and two nitrogen atoms, making it very different too if compared to purine from the layers of its structure.
To make it simple, there are four monomers in the DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine. They are divided into two different type if we are looking into its base: purines and pyrimidines. Between the two bases within our DNA structure, purines is larger than pyrimidine. They Have 9 atoms – consists of 4 nitrogen and 5 carbon) made of fused rings that are bound together, which later is labeled as number 1 to number 9. All of them are placed within the same or linier plane. Meanwhile, the pyrimidines only have 6 atoms, consist of 4 carbon and 2 nitrogen, and numbered as 1 to 6. After knowing its core, let’s answer your curiosity about what are the monomer units of DNA. Here is the breakdown of the four monomers of DNA.
One of the purines that our nucleotide has is Adenine. It has two rings, in which one ring contains of six members, while the other has only five members. Those rings consist of hydrogen, carbon as well as nitrogen. Many purines occur and can be easily found in natural phenomenon. It happens naturally, such as uric acid as well as caffeine, where each of the compounds is fused together in our environment to form purines. Within our DNA structure, Adenine works in pairs with thymine. Working as the nitrogenous base for ATP (Adosine Triphosphate), Adenine is the one which is responsible to transfer all kinds of chemical energy from one cell to another in our metabolism. This is why, if we are lacking of Adenine, it will be difficult for our body to function properly. Thus, Adenine is one of the most important components, especially to answer the question what are the monomer units of DNA.
Different from Adenine, Guanine consists of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon as well as nitrogen and phosporus. However, it is also another nucleotide that has purine as its base in our DNA structure. From the layers of its compounds, it looks similar to Adenine, because Guanine has two rings, one ring consists of five members while the other has six members ring. During the protein synthesis, Guanine holds a very important role, because it helps our body system to digest it as it allows the synthesis of glucose. This happens when the base is nitrogen for a guano sine triphosphate.
When learning about what are the monomer units of DNA, you need to be familiar with thymine as well. One of the nucleotide whose base is pyrimidine is thymine. If you look through the structure of our DNA, you will find out that this base is fused or bound together to adenine. However, different from purines that have two rings as the main component within its layers, the structure of pyrimidine only contains of one ring with six members. Thymine works along with uracil, because when somebody is lacking of thymine or there is a deficiency within it, you can always substitute it with uracil in the RNA structure. Within its core, thymine is rich of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. Thymine functions as the glue of one DNA with other, because the thymidine triphosphate containing inside works as a repairman. It allows those cells or pieces of DNA to glue back or stick together when they are broken down, in which they are making longer chains, and sometimes forming double strands or double helix of DNA in return.
The other monomer that has pyrimidine as its base is Cytosine. The compound of cytosine is formed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. Cytosine sticks together with guanine within the DNA structure. Similar to all other kind of pyrimidine based nucleotide, Cytosine consists of only one ring that has six members. Just like Thymine, Cytosine can be replaced to uracil in RNA. Amongst all other bonds that the four monomers have, the binds or helix between cytosine and guanine is the easiest to break within the DNA structure. This happens because cytosine is the most unstable DNA nucleotide in our body, in which it easily changes, depends on the environment. After reading the explanation, now can you answer what are the monomer units of DNA?