Which of the Following Builds New Strands of DNA, A Replication
Which of the following builds new strands of DNA, is it replication, amplification, or PCR process? DNA replication is always involved in building new strands of DNA. The process of replicating the DNA is complex, involving multiple sets of protein and enzymes that collectively create nucleotide in a specified order. Here is what you need to know about DNA replication.
The replication process of a DNA
In a DNA replication, there is a cell division process. During the process that involves a series of protein and enzymes which create nucleotide, the signal sent by the molecules create a DNA replication and synthesize two new strands of DNA as a template or a mold. Each mold will create two identical DNA molecules that consist of one new strand and the mold. The process of DNA replication is considered as a semi-conservative. There are seven steps of DNA replication.
DNA replication started from a specific location or called as the replication source that has specified order. The protein called DNA initiator will recognize the order. They will bond the DNA molecules on the source, so the source will loose and able to assemble other important protein and enzymes for DNA replication. An enzyme named helicase will be added into the source for the unwinding process of a single helix.
The helicase will release the hydrogen bond between base pair according to the energy. This point is also called the replication fork. After the helix is opened, a protein called SSB will bond the open area and prevent them to stick back. The start of the replication process and the replication fork will be continued in an opposite direction.
In a new synthesis, the complementary DNA strand uses the template strand that has been brought by the enzyme called DNA polymerase. Aside from replication, they also play an important part in recombining and repairing the DNA.
But, the polymerase DNA can’t start the DNA synthesis independently. It needs three hydroxide clusters to start adding complementary nucleotides. The clusters are provided by an enzyme called DNA primase, which is a type of dependent-RNA polymerase DNA. Which of the following builds new strands of DNA, the process synthesizes a short range of RNA to an available DNA strand. This short segment is called the primer, which consists of nine to twelve nucleotides. This will give the DNA polymerase a platform to start copying a strand of DNA. After the primer is created into two strands, the DNA polymerase can extend the primer to make a new strand of DNA.
A DNA opening could cause supercoiling, which is an unusual spiral shape, in the next replication fork. If supercoiling occurred, the DNA will be opened by a special enzyme called topoisomerase that binds to the front part of the DNA replication fork. This will create a cutting to the DNA in order to prevent and relieve the effect of supercoiling.
Leading strand synthesis process
The DNA polymerase can add a new nucleotide to the upper end of a strand. Because of that, it can only synthesize DNA in a lower to the upper direction. But, the DNA strand will go in an opposite way, resulting in a continuous process on each DNA strand. This process is usually called the leading strand.
The next step is that DNA polymerase (DNA pol III), which is located near the upper end of a strand, will recognize the upper end of a primer RNA and adding new complementary nucleotide. When a replication fork has occurred, the new nucleotide will be added continuously resulting in a never-ending production of a new strand, which of the following builds new strands of DNA.
The synthesis lagging strand process
On the opposite strand, DNA will be synthesized in a separate way by producing a series of a small fragment from a new DNA with a bottom to top direction. This fragment is called Okazaki fragment that will join the entire replication process to create a continuous nucleotide chain. This entire strand is called the lagging strand since the DNA on the strand during this process is produced at a lower level.
In this stage, primase will add another primer in several places that have open strand. The DNA pol III will extend the length of the primer by adding new nucleotide and will fall when it meets another fragment that has been created before. This process is needed to release a DNA strand and then moving on to the upper part to extend another RNA primer. A slide clamp holds the DNA in place when moving through the replication process, which of the following builds new strands of DNA.
The primer deletion
Although the new DNA strand has been synthesized, the primer RNA on a newly created strand should be replaced by a DNA. This process is done by the enzyme of DNA polymerase I (DNA pol I). This enzyme is specifically tasked to delete RNA primer with a bottom to top direction. The exonuclease activity will replace them with a new deoxyribonucleotide with a DNA polymerase activity in a bottom to top direction, which of the following builds new strands of DNA.
After the deletion of the primer is done, there is a gap in between the adjacent Okazaki fragment on a strand. The ligase enzyme will identify and close the gap by creating a phosphodiester bond. The bond is between phosphate on the upper DNA and hydroxyl cluster on the lower DNA in the adjacent fragment.
The termination processes
The replication process is stopped in a special termination consist of unique nucleotide order. The order is identified by a special protein called TUS (terminus utilization substance), which will bind into the location and physically blocks the helicase. When the helicase meets the TUS protein, they will fall at the same time with the nearest single binding protein.
The entire seven process needs to be completed in order to replicate the DNA. Started with the initiation and followed by the primer synthesis. Then, the leading strand process and followed by the synthesis lag process. After that, the DNA will go through three short processes. They are the primer deletion, ligation process, and termination process, which of the following builds new strands of DNA.