Which process produces RNA from DNA? In the process of RNA production, it cannot be simply separated from DNA although both are quite different. In other words, there must be the role of DNA so that the RNA can be completely formed and able to perform as it should be.
The Process of RNA Formation
The process of RNA formation is closely related to the function of DNA. In short, RNA is basically the result of the transcription process of a certain DNA fragment. The role of DNA is as the carrier of the genetic information in the form of codes. Those codes are then printed out to form the RNA. Aside from the DNA, there are 2 main steps included along with the help of RNA Polymerase enzyme (RNAp). The two steps are namely Transcription and Translation steps. Here are the explanations.
In the transcription process, the DNA is used as the mold or template of the RNA messenger’s synthesis. The process consists of 3 other steps; they are initiation, elongation, and termination.
In this step, the RNA polymerase copies the gen that leads to the bound of RNAp with the promoter. Promoter is the place where the gen or DNA and RNAp meet. Next, the bound is able to give the initiation of the transcription. RNAp opens the double-helix DNA which is functioned as the template of the sense chain.
Here, the RNAp moves along the double-helix DNA, open the helix and arrange the ribonucleotide on the edge 3’ of ribonucleotide that has been grown. The result is in the form of RNA strain with the orders of nitrogen base. The nitrogen base itself is the result of the recording. When the recording results are already 30, a certain chemical compound will send a initiation signal. The compound is then also functioned as the cover as well as avoiding the RNA degradation.
The termination process is the stop of the recording process. In the same time, the new DNA molecule is separated from the DNA template. This step is signed by the isolation of the RNAp enzyme from the DNA and RNA. The RNA is then released to result the complete transcription product namely the messenger RNA (mRNA).
Translation is the step of decoding some triplets or condones from the mRNA to the amino acid. Next, it forms the protein. Each of the triplets consists of the orders of the different nitrogen base. It is then translated into the different amino acid as well. The amino acid produces the strains of specific polypeptide until it is able to form the specific protein also. The process of the translation can be in the form of initiation, elongation, and termination. Although the names are similar to the process of the transcription, it is a little bit different in term of steps and components.
This step is started by the introduction of the AUG condones that are placed on the end part of the mRNA or it is known also as the Start Condone. The AUG condones code the metionin formation. Next, metionin is brought by the tRNA to join through the compound of a big subunit of the ribosome. The result is a complete ribosome. The first tRNA molecule bound into the ribosome is placed on a certain spot namely the side P. The side forms a strain with the term of polypeptide. Meanwhile, the next tRNA chains with the second condone and it places on the ribosome on the side A (the amino acid).
This step is signed by the activation of the amino acid by the tRNA from one condone to another to form the amino acid one by one. The elongation process makes the polypeptide strain grows longer due to the addition of the amino acid.
This process is signed by the meeting of the anti-condones brought by the tRNA with the UAA, UAG, or UGA. It causes the stop of the translation process. As a result, the strains of polypeptide are released. They are then formed from the ribosome and processed to form the functional protein.
Types of RNA
To know more about the role of DNA over the RNA, it is important also to learn about the types of RNA. By seeing the classification, every piece of the RNA has its own specific function with the interrelated mechanisms. There are two categories of the RNA, they are.
1.The Genetic RNA
The genetic RNA takes a role just like it is DNA and it is owned by certain creatures that don’t have any DNA like in some types of virus. In the host, the virus’ RNA undergoes the re-transcription into the RNA-DNA genetic code which is finally forming the DNA.
The virus’ DNA enters the host’ nucleus and insert to it. In the beginning, it damages the host’ DNA and forms the mRNA. mRNA passes through the translation process to produce the protein surrounded by the virus. It forms the new viruses. The main role of this molecule is bringing all the genetic materials as it is owned by the DNA.
The non-genetic RNA is a kind of molecule owned by all the creatures that the genetic materials are arranged by the DNA. For this type of creatures, the cells have both DNA and RNA. In other words, the role is not likely the DNA. Besides, it has 3 other types namely the Transfer RNA (tRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and the messenger RNA (mRNA).
tRNA is the shortest RNA and it is functioned as the condones translation from the mRNA. Then, rRNA is a kind of ribosome that contains the protein with the similar mass. Lastly, there is mRNA which is in the form of single linear ribbon and it is synthesized by the DNA inside the nucleus.
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that the production process of RNA from the DNA is during the initiation process particularly in the transcription step. On the other hand, there is also the genetic RNA in certain creatures that are functioned as the DNA as the genetic code carrier.